Colonoscopy (koh-luh-NAH-skuh-pee) lets the physician look inside your entire large intestine, from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way up through the colon to the lower end of the small intestine. The procedure is used to look for early signs of cancer in the colon. It is also used to diagnose the causes of unexplained changes in bowel habits. The procedure also enables the physician to see inflamed tissue, abnormal growths, ulcers, and bleeding.
For the procedure, you will lie on your left side on the examining table. You will probably be given pain medication and a mild sedative to keep you comfortable and to help you relax during the exam. The physician will insert a long, flexible, lighted tube into your rectum and slowly guide it into your colon.
The tube is called a colonoscope (koh-LON-oh-skope). The scope transmits an image of the inside of the colon, so the physician can carefully examine the lining of the colon. The scope bends, so the physician can move it around the curves of your colon. You may be asked to change position occasionally to help the physician move the scope. The scope also blows air into your colon, which inflates the colon and helps the physician see better.
If anything abnormal is seen in your colon, like a polyp or inflamed tissue, the physician can remove all or part of it using tiny instruments passed through the scope. That tissue (biopsy) is then sent to a lab for testing. If there is bleeding in the digestive tract, the physician can pass a laser, heater probe, or electrical probe, or inject special medicines through the scope and use it to stop the bleeding.
Bleeding and puncture of the colon are potential complications of colonoscopy. However, such complications are uncommon.
The procedure takes 30 to 60 minutes. The sedative and pain medicine should keep you from feeling much discomfort during the exam. You will need to remain at the endoscopy facility for 1 to 2 hours until the sedative wears off.
Preparation for Colonoscopy
Your colon must be completely empty for the procedure to be thorough and safe. To prepare, you may have to follow a liquid diet for 1 to 3 days beforehand. A liquid diet may include fat-free bouillon or broth, strained fruit juice, water, plain coffee, plain tea, or diet soda (but it is best to avoid the caffeinated beverages as these may irritate the colon). Gelatin or popsicles in any color but red may also be eaten. You will also take one of several types of laxatives the night before the procedure.
Furthermore, you must arrange for transportation following the procedure as you will not be allowed to drive due to the effect of the sedatives. Your physician may give you other special instructions. Inform your physician of any medical conditions or medications that you take before the colonscopy.
For More Information
American College of Gastroenterology (ACG)
4900-B South 31st Street
Arlington, VA 22206-1656
Phone: (703) 820-7400
Fax: (703) 931-4520
International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (IFFGD)
P.O. Box 170864
Milwaukee, WI 53217
Phone: 1-888-964-2001 or (414) 964-1799
Fax: (414) 964-7176
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